Baskaran, Angathevar, ed. Creating Systems of Innovation in Africa : Country Case Studies. Cape Town, ZAF: Africa Institute of South Africa, 2013. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 27 May 2015. Copyright © 2013. Africa Institute of South Africa. All rights reserved. READ PAGES 97-102
DEFINITIONS: "the creation, diffusion, mastery and productive use of new or already existing ideas and knowledge in the economy irrespective of whether or not these new ideas or knowledge are new elsewhere." (99)

"Various types of knowledge are relevant; scientific, organisational, entrepreneurial, marketing and farm or establishment-level knowledge, the latter often ‘tacit’ (Polanyi, 1967), that is, un-stated, hidden in daily routines and difficult to transfer. Innovations can take the form of new production processes, new products, new forms of organisation and new markets; new to the establishment or country. Innovation does not refer to technologies or to inventions, and studies emphasise that it is simply not enough to produce good science and technologies if they cannot be ‘translated’ into uses of benefit to farmers, firms and economies (Lundvall, 1992; Edquist, 1997)."

Three types of innovation systems:

  1. push to adopt new technique or technology in new context
  2. response to shift in paradigm or regulatory environment
  3. response to changes in markets

Kahan, Seth.Getting innovation right: how leaders leverage inflection points to drive success San Francisco : Jossey-Bass, 2013.

DEFINITION: Innovation is the successful introduction of something new. Has to generate recognized value.

Ch 2 "Build Innovation Capacity"
Three obstacles: (1) everyday activity (2) internal stress of newness/change (3) external market forces outside your control.
Don't make innovation an add-on additional activity that competes with taking care of business. Try not to let "this gets in the way of what we are supposed to be doing" be a good argument. Aim for intermediate stress level (cf. Yerkes-Dodson). Author suggests "leadership" and "talent" as two components of the foundation on which innovation can proceed despite these obstacles. The third component is "And a robust process for the emergence, development, and maturing of ideas ensures that people are continuously thinking together about how to stay ahead." (46)